Chapter 85

Constantine’s Wall : defensive structure built in the middle of Constantinople. Today Constantinople is known as Istanbul, Turkey. The wall stretches from the Golden Horn to the Byzantine Sea Walls.

John F. Kennedy: served as the 65th president of the United States of America. He began his term in 1961 when he was 43 years old. Kennedy’s presidency mainly dealt with the Cold War. The Cold War was a “sustained state of political and military tension” (Cold War) between the U.S. and Soviet Union. His presidency and life were tragically cut short when he was assassinated in 1963.









Kemal Ataturk: “was a Turkish army officer in the Ottoman military, revolutionary statesman, and the first President of Turkey. He is credited with being the founder of the Republic of Turkey”(Kemal Ataturk).

Yenikapi: is a port located in Istanbul, Turkey. It is most famous for the ongoing excavations of shipwrecks that were discovered in the port in 2004 (Yenikapi).

Strait of Bosphorus: is a body of water than forms a boundary between Europe and Asia. This strait connects the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. The formation of the strait still “remains the subject of debate among geologists”(











Golden Horn: “is an inlet of the Bosphorus dividing the city of Istanbul and forming the natural harbor that has sheltered Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman, and other ships for thousands of years”(

Prophet Muhammad: An Islamic prophet from Mecca, Muhammad was a “religious, political, and military leader” who unified Arabia under the religion of Islam. He is believed by Muslims to be the last “messenger and prophet of God” (

Karl Marx: known as the “father of communism” he was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist”( Not only did he make significant contributions in communism, but his discoveries in economics “laid the basis for the current understanding of labor and its relation to capital, and has influenced much of subsequent economic thought”(

Brueagel’s “The Triumph of Death”: is an oil painting created by Pieter Brueagel the Elder. This painting depicts an army of “skeletons wreaking havoc across a blackened, desolate landscape. Fires burn in the distance, and the sea is littered with shipwrecks”(

Cinderella’s Castle in Disney World: is the is the “fairy tale castle at the center of […] the Magic Kingdom at the Walt Disney World Resort” in Orlando, Florida.” The castle serves as a “worldwide recognized icon”(

Egyptian obelisk : an obelisk is a “tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape at the top”( The Egyptians typically placed two obelisks at the entrance of their temples. Many of their obelisks remain intact even to this day.

Luxor: known as “the world’s greatest open air museum,” Luxor is a city in Upper Egypt and serves as the capital of Luxor Governorate. The Temple of Luxor is one of the few buildings in Egypt that still has an original obelisk at its entrance.

Serpent column from The Temple of Apollo at Delphi : Located in Istanbul, Turkey, the Serpent Column is an “ancient bronze column” and is “part of an ancient Greek sacrificial tripod.”

Milion Column: is a “mile-marker monument erected in the early 4th century AD in […]Istanbul, Turkey. It was the starting-place for measurement of distances for all the roads leading to the cities of the Byzantine Empire.”


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