Ethics and Confidentiality

This project was approved by Internal Review Board (IRB) review on November 10, 2022. Below is a statement on how ethics and confidentiality are being maintained throughout the project.

To collect information about potential participants in this study, we are using Qualtrics. This system provides the gold standard in security of online data and is approved by the Middlebury Institutional Review Board (IRB). (Additional information is available here: Most of the information is marked as optional to allow potential participants to only disclose the information they feel safe offering.

We are also taking additional measures to enhance the safety of both potential and accepted participants in the study. After registration, those not accepted to participate in the study have all their personal data deleted and removed. Accepted participants will have all personal data except for their email address deleted and removed. Email addresses are not associated with comments in the interview or any other identifiable data. Email addresses are only accessible by the research team and kept on a private, password-protected server stored in the U.S.

We want to underscore that due to the nature of the study, there are personal risks to participating in the study. Many countries, including the countries of origin included in this study, do not have legal protections for those who engage in same-sex sexual behavior or expansive gender expression (i.e. gender non-conforming individuals). In many countries same-sex behavior is also outlawed, and government surveillance may occur. In addition, being identified as LGBTQIA+ in certain contexts can result in various forms of bias against individuals or members of their family. Discrimination can occur in employment, social inclusion, access to health care services and adoption, and other gender-normative government-provided support. We ask that those interested in participating in the study consider their own situation and risk before registering. Additional information on risks by country can be found at

If you have any questions about the study, please contact Dr. Anne Campbell at or through the Contact Us page. 

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