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The Twelve Oldest Trees on Campus

Categories: Midd Blogosphere

Middlebury Magazine asked me to help with a story a month or so ago-they were looking for the 10 oldest trees on campus. Naturally, I gave them 12. There were a couple I just couldn’t leave off, and I walk around and still see a couple more I should have added.

Our campus features many spectacular trees, but surprisingly none of them are very old. Charles Baker Wright, Professor Emeritus of Rhetoric and English Literature , in the Middlebury College News Letter of 1931 talks of the story of campus trees, and how early in the history of the college was an old time notion that “trees wouldn’t grow on that hillside”, and how finally in about the 1830’s trees were planted wholesale, so thick that 70 years later Old Stone Row was a ‘veritable thicket’. Other areas of campus were likewise barren of trees, but didn’t have the donations to plant like near the Row. (as always, click on the picture for larger version) (especially to see the guys in the top hats)

Painter Hall in 1879

Painter Hall in 1879

Painter Hall 2014 Note large Sugar Maple in picture, smaller in picture above

Painter Hall 2014
Note large Sugar Maple in picture, smaller in picture above

Some of the more dramatic pictures were taken along the back of Old Stone Row, on the road that was called Waldo Avenue.

Starr Hall 1890

Starr Hall 1890

Starr Hall 2014

Starr Hall 2014

Old Chapel 1875

Old Chapel 1875

Old Chapel 1895

Old Chapel 1895 

 

Old Chapel 2014

Old Chapel 2014

Another sad chapter in the arboreal history of Middlebury is Dutch elm disease, which you can read much more about on other pages in this blog. Many areas presently bare of canopy from shade trees are previous Elm locations. This is not all bad-views from Old Chapel Road to Mead Chapel are greatly enhanced by the clear lines of sight.

A football game in 1900. Note the large elms along the west side of Painter Hall.

A football game in 1900. Note the large elms along the west side of Painter Hall.

Same view 2014

Same view 2014

The Spring issue of the Middlebury newsletter in 1981. Those are elm trees lining Mead Chapel walkway behind the May pole (which Facilities still has stored somewhere!)

The Spring issue of the Middlebury newsletter in 1981. Those are elm trees lining Mead Chapel walkway behind the May pole (which Facilities still has stored somewhere!)

 

2014-no May pole, and sadly no costumes.

2014-no May pole, and sadly no costumes.

Mead Chapel 1942

Mead Chapel 1942

Mead Chapel 2014

Mead Chapel 2014

Trees have a lifespan, like us, and it may be useful to think about tree years the way many people think about Dog years, but with no set figure to multiply.  A redwood is ancient at 2000 years old, Bristlecone Pines date to 3500 years old, while a Poplar tree is old at 40. I’d venture to say an old tree for Vermont is 300, with precious few of them remaining.

A great grandma of all the trees on the Middlebury campus is a spectacular Bur Oak on the north side of the Mahaney Center for the Arts. Fellow horticulturists have estimated an age of easily 250 years old. Even in tree years, this one’s sitting on the porch rocker being waited on hand and foot. Trees like this, particularly oaks, were often left as boundary markers for property, and would be referenced in deeds and other legal documents. Aerial photographs of the area show this tree sitting next to Porter Fields, the combination baseball/soccer fields for years. It was there long before Baseball. I’ve written about this tree before.

Bur Oak at the Mahaney Center for the Arts

Bur Oak at the Mahaney Center for the Arts

Paper Birch is, like all birch, an early successional tree, born to live fast, set seed, and die young. This tree isn’t very old in human years (I’m guessing about 85-90), but a mature birch is only 45-50. Proof that the right tree in the right spot will do wonderful things. This tree would be a grandparent too, one of those impatient ones yelling at the grandkids to keep off the lawn. It is safe to assume this birch was planted by the former owners of the house (the McKinley’s, I think, as that is what we call the house). Paper birch is an extremely popular landscape tree, but prone to many diseases which shorten the lifespan.

Paper Birch at the McKinley House

Paper Birch at the McKinley House

Nearby there is an elm along Route 30 next to the field house. I often wonder about all the construction it’s been watching over the years. Our guess is about 175-200 years old, an old survivor from when elms were transplanted from the woods to line the rudimentary roads of the new country. Old photographs show elms lining both Route 30 and 125, and we work hard to save the few that remain. This one’s middle aged in tree years, elms can go for many decades more than this one has been around.

American Elm at Field House

American Elm at Field House

Norway Spruce grow fast when young, and get leisurely in their middle age. The massive Norway spruce north of McCullough was planted as part of a windbreak to protect the athletic fields next to the gym. Photographs from 1890 show already mature trees next to the baseball field, making this spruce easily over 150 years old. This tree is unusual for a Norway spruce in that the main stems are going through reiteration-the bottom stems forming entirely new trees, so looking up from the base into the canopy of this tree one would see multiple trees sharing a single trunk. This is much more common in Redwoods, but clearly this spruce dreams big.

Norway Spruce

Norway Spruce

 

Old Stone Row and the Main Quad in 1890-the large Norway spruce is in the closer row

Old Stone Row and the Main Quad in 1890-the large Norway spruce is in the closer row

Old Stone Row and the Main Quad 2014

Old Stone Row and the Main Quad 2014

Another perspective on teh spruce row-1892

Another perspective on the spruce row-1892

Same perspective as above 2014

Same perspective as above 2014

Hepburn Hall in 1929

Hepburn Hall in 1929

Hepburn Hall 2014

Hepburn Hall 2014

Up the hill from the spruce is a Black Walnut, probably 80-100 years old. It’s a middle aged tree as well, but was part of the extensive gardens of Maude Mason planted to the south of Hepburn. Most walnuts live to about 150 years old, but in the right location (which I hope this spot is) can go over 400.

Black Walnut at Hepburn

Black Walnut at Hepburn

This walnut was probably planted as part of extensive gardens to the south of Hepburn at the beginning of the century. There was an old cottage nearby as well. The only remnants left of this landscape is a small garden with a plaque on the top of Stewart Hill dedicated to Maude Owen Mason, ‘who planned and planted and tended it from 1916 till 1937′. The garden has since been overcome by Mugo pine, a great example of breaking Tim’s first rule of landscaping-’If it looks good when it goes in, it’s too crowded’.

Hepburn Hall Gardens in  1937

Hepburn Hall Gardens in 1937

Hepburn Hall 2014

Hepburn Hall 2014

 

The former Battell Cottage, now known as Adirondack House, has two very large Austrian Pines in the front yard facing Route 125. A picture from 1929 shows one of them fully mature, making these an impressive 150 years old or more. In tree years, very old.

Austrian Pines at Adirondack House

Austrian Pines at Adirondack House

Adirondack House-1929 Austrian Pine on right side

Adirondack House-1929
Austrian Pine on right side

Adirondack House 2014

Adirondack House 2014

3 Black Maples, a close relative of Sugar Maple, remain in a row along Storrs Walk next to Old Chapel. This is the area of campus heavily planted in the 1830’s, and these are the only remaining trees left. At 185 years old they are reaching the end of their typical lifespan, but we are actively preserving them, and hopefully will be around much longer. I’ve written of Black maples in the past.

Black Maples at Old Chapel

Black Maples at Old Chapel

Old Chapel -1895

Old Chapel -1895

Old Chapel 2014

Old Chapel 2014

Old Chapel 1900

Old Chapel 1900

Old Chapel 2014

Old Chapel 2014

Old Stone Row 1910-Black Maples in center background of picture

Old Stone Row 1910-Black Maples in center background of picture

Old Stone Row 2014-Black Maple in center left of picture

Old Stone Row 2014-Black Maple in center left of picture

A photograph from 1947 shows a couple of Sycamore trees planted alongside the road across from the Student Union Building, where Proctor is now. The trees were reaching maturity then, so they are only 85 years old, but one is massively large, once again the right tree in the right spot. So much for trees not growing on that hillside.

Sycamore near Proctor

Sycamore near Proctor

Old Student Union Building-(where Proctor is now) -1947 Sycamore tree in center of photo

Old Student Union Building-(where Proctor is now) -1947
Sycamore tree in center of photo

Same view 2014

Same view 2014

Another view 2014

Another view 2014

Near the Gravity monument by Warner science is a Littleleaf Linden, a tree the British call Lime trees. This one sets the state record for size, with an estimate of age of over 100 years. Its growth rate has slowed considerably; she’s reaching old age gracefully now.

Littleleaf Linden at Warner Science

Littleleaf Linden at Warner Science

Aerial photographs from 1942 show the Pin Oak to the south of FIC gracing the front yard of a house there, with Chateau in the back yard. We estimate this tree at about 125 years old, a teenager for an oak.

Pin Oak by FIC

Pin Oak by FIC

Same aerial photograph-an apple planted next to what looks like gardens. This makes sense, as that entire area of campus has a proliferation of Pear trees similarly old we know nothing about. This tree is probably about the same age as the Pin Oak, but quite a bit older in Tree years.

Apple tree by Coffrin

Apple tree by Coffrin

The oldest tree (in tree years) on the campus is also one of the youngest in human years. Yellowwood is a pretty little tree with Beech like bark and pendulous white flowers in the early summer. The tree tends to branch low with multiple trunks, and falls apart after 50 years or so. Ours is probably 75, with multiple steel brace rods holding the trunks together.

Yellowwood tree by Hadley Milliken

Yellowwood tree by Hadley Milliken

Many thanks to the Digital Media archives, where I spent an enjoyable day in front of the woodstove on the laptop-any use of their pictures should go through them (I’m talking to you, Pinterest) All new pictures are my own.

The Botany of Syrup

Categories: Midd Blogosphere

Any kid will tell you maple syrup is special, but how special? Is tapping a maple tree like putting a spigot in the trunk? And why maple?

In a wonderful book I’ve written about before by Nalini M. Nadkarni called “Between Earth and Sky-Our Intimate Connection to Trees” she writes of how botanists and tree physiologists have been looking at how sap is produced within maple in the last couple of decades. Like many things, the wild world of maple syrup seems like a freak chance, a perfect random combination of physiology.

A tree’s goal, aside from reproduction, is to feed itself-it’s tough being an autotroph, and a whole lot of work. Photosynthesis takes place all summer long, making sugars for respiration, growth, reproduction, and a little extra. This extra, in a sugar maple, gets stored as starches within the sapwood of the tree. The sapwood, as the name sounds, is the area of the trunk and branches where water and sugars move around, located within the first couple rings of the wood.

As my winter term class hopefully remembers, Sugar maple is one of our “live slow, die old” species of trees. These trees are more shade tolerant, in life for the long haul, and have the foresight to save extra sugar for lean times, such as the introduction of shade or competition. Other tree species, such as Poplar, live fast and die young, and burn through all their sugar like a hyper 3 old, just as prone to growth spurts as an Aspen in the spring.

Early spring brings sun, a little higher in the sky, and better able to warm. Cats in our house know this, moving away from the woodstove and into little patches of sunlight on soft surfaces. Trees know this too, as the sun warms the bark and the wood. The air may be below freezing, but tree surfaces and interiors could be well above freezing. Once the wood gets to be above 40 degrees, enzymes turn these stored starches into sugars, mostly sucrose, and the sugar is now within the sap. This explains the magical sugaring temperature of 40, any warmer and this process stops.

The other freak chance miracle of maple is getting the sap flowing out of the tree. Not all trees can do this. Water is moved throughout the xylem of the tree by capillary action and transpiration, meaning the leaves need to be on the tree for water to move very effectively. That  would ordinarily make for tough sugaring in March and April, except in Maple.

In maple trees the space around the wood fibers is filled with gas, not water like most plants. When the temperature drops, this gas contracts, making space for the sap laden with sugar in between the cells. So water can move upwards from the roots by capillary action without the benefit of transpiration from leaves. This water freezes at night between the cells.

The day brings warm temperatures, melting this ice and expanding the gas, forcing water down the branches into the stems and trunks of the tree. The taps put into tree trunks to collect sap pierce the xylem all this sap is moving through, and water flows down the tap into the bucket or plastic line.

Interested biology students should read another blog, The Botanist in the Kitchen, http://botanistinthekitchen.wordpress.com/2013/03/18/maple-syrup-mechanics/ , and a cool roadtrip would be the Proctor Maple Research Facility of my old school UVM.

 

Free Tree Pruning Webinar

Categories: Midd Blogosphere

There are no truly awful times to prune a tree, but it’s best to prune in late winter. Early spring would be the only bad time-opening buds and blooms are the low point in a tree’s stored energy reserves, and late winter is warm (ish) but with the leaves off one can still see tree structure well.

So what I’m saying is that, based on the way this winter is going, we’ve got plenty of time left to prune. I’ve written about tree pruning before, but here’s a great opportunity to learn from an expert. The Vermont Urban and Community Forestry program is hosting a series of webinars during lunch hours on tree care, and the first is this Thursday. Tune in and watch V.J. Comai, owner of the South 40 Nursery, talk about tree pruning. Middlebury has bought many of his trees, and, (disclaimer!) he’s a good friend of mine. And truly masterful at the art of tree growing.

Here’s the published blurb-

The Basics of Tree Pruning- March 27th, 12-1pm

When is the best time to prune? What is the proper way to make a pruning cut?  What considerations should you make and what knowledge should you have about a particular tree before pruning?  This webinar will cover benefits of pruning, basic pruning techniques, tips for making a proper cut, and tools and tool safety.  Open to novices and professionals alike!

I highly recommend watching. Sign up at https://vtucf.wufoo.com/forms/tree-planting-pruning-webinar-series/ 

Middlebury’s Elm Collection

Categories: Midd Blogosphere

Among various tree geeks in New England Middlebury is well known for our Heritage Elm Collection. Elms, of course, naturally succomb to Dutch Elm Disease if we humans aren’t very proactive. We treat 28 old Elm trees, some of which are over 150 years old. I’ve written a couple new pages on them, one a general overview of all of the elms, one a brief primer on Dutch Elm disease and how we maintain the trees, and a final page on the history of the elm tree at Middlebury.

12-Elms

Elms have that classic umbrella shape, but can vary from specimen to specimen. We are fortunate to have trees in a wide variety of sizes and shapes, from the low spreading type like the Dog Elm behind Munroe (yes, we’ve named some of them), to the spectacular high and arching Field House elm. We also have been planting disease resistant varieties, such as Accolade Elm.

I remember a conversation with one of our seasonal employees several years ago, and we were discussing the difference between botany and horticulture. He cited the elm as a good example. Botanically, we will always have elm trees. They don’t die from Dutch elm disease until past their reproductive years, so they will always set seed and produce more young. And looking at them from a geological time perspective, eventually they will develop resistance, although that may be many millennia. Horticulture, though, is as much art as science, and as horticulturists we preserve some of the grandeur of an old elm, and we remember the dignity of the old shade tree as it was, even as we work towards bringing them back.

Tree Map Updated

Categories: Midd Blogosphere

Having run inside, fleeing from the sub zero temperatures outside today, I spent the day updating our ArcGIS tree map with all the newly planted trees this year, as well as our removals. Seems like a good time to point towards the Campus Tree Map page, or go/treemap. The latest map contains all the trees we individually manage on campus, nearly 2500. Maybe if the cold spell lasts we’ll come up with a smartphone compatible tour…

Arbor Day, the film

Categories: Midd Blogosphere

When some friends from the Vermont Department of Forest, Parks and Recreation and the University of Vermont came to my winter term class to see our group project on Emerald Ash Borer, one of the things that impressed them the most was the diversity of experience in the classroom. We take it for granted at a liberal arts school, but to them it was quite novel to have Studio Art and Religion majors in the same classroom with Biology and Environmental Studies.

I’ve also discovered another delightful fact about teaching here at Middlebury-the sometimes painful truth that all of the students are more intelligent and creative than I could ever hope to be. It’s a great feeling to have your simple little course on trees extended into other work across campus, in liberal art ways you would have never thought.

So in that spirit, I want you all to watch Arbor Day, the movie. Created by the incredibly talented Joanie Thompson for Sight and Sound I in the Department of Film and Media Culture, it made my whole day. As I’m sure happens often at Middlebury, the teacher becomes the student.

Arbor Day from Joanie Thompson on Vimeo.

 

Arbor Day 2013

Categories: Midd Blogosphere

It’s been a gorgeous spring, and we’re celebrating with a huge Arbor Day celebration. Plan on joining us May 14th, details below. But in the meantime…

love a tree? share the love. send us photos, poems, and other art about your favorite campus tree. Submit a photo, or post on twitter with #middarborday. submit by may 10 to have your tree featured in the arbor day tree-k race! Either go twitter (@middland) or send to tparsons (at) middlebury.edu to submit. Prizes, fame, fortune, and good tree karma await. And the winning trees will become the basis of the second annual Tree-K race around campus (run 5-K,, and learn the names of 5 of the trees along the route to win) A kid’s race will be held as well. Winners receive gift certificates to the Grille.

The days events will be as follows:

Campus Tree Tour-join us for a walk around campus and learn about some of our woody friends. The tour starts at the McCullough Plaza at 2 PM, and wends its way through campus until about 3:30, when we will end up north of Battell Hall, where we-

Plant a Tree- a whole bunch of trees will be awaiting your tender loving care to be planted north of Battell Hall and in between Allen and Wright Theater. If you’ve never planted a tree this is something you should do-it will still be here for all of your reunions, like the rest of your old friends you’re eagerly awaiting to see. Afterwords, you can run or watch the-

Tree K Race-run about a 5-K loop around campus to all the various favorite trees nominated by the Middlebury campus community. Winners will receive prizes, and all kids will as well. Not too strenuous, as you’ll need to save strength for-

Food, music, and ice cream-We’ll be on the Atwater plaza, with a cookout by Grille Catering using local foods, ice cream, and listen to music by Will Cuneo and Rita Pfeiffer. Enjoy the sunshine for an hour or two before heading back inside to study for finals. A huge thank you to the Environmental Council for funding us!

So spread the word, let your neighbors know, and come celebrate our campus forest.